A wide range of definitions and conceptualizations of “management” have been offered and it is often difficult for managers to fully and clearly understand their roles within the organization; however, managers striving for effectiveness and success would do well to invest time and effort into understanding the functions, roles and skills associated with the managerial position. As with definitions of management, researchers and commentators have developed a variety of lists of managerial functions. The consensus seems to be that managers can expect to be involved in planning, organizing, leading and controlling, and that these functions will be needed when working with a range of organizational resources including people, cash, physical assets and information. While the specific day-to-day activities of managers will vary depending on his or her place in the organizational hierarchy, he or she must nonetheless have the ability to understand the behaviors and feelings of the people who report to them, senior officials above them in the organizational hierarchy, other colleagues throughout the organization, and external stakeholders such as customers, supplier and regulators. In addition, managers must be able to maintain self-awareness and monitor their personal capacities for dealing with the stress of their jobs and engaging in activities that will further their career development. In order to be adroit practitioners of their craft, managers must understand certain basic concepts such as the functions, roles and skills associated with the managerial position; the different levels of managerial effectiveness and how they are measured; and the styles available to managers and the factors that determine which style might be preferred in a particular instance.
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