Leadership is a universal phenomenon that has preoccupied scholars, politicians and others for centuries. In the management context leadership has been consistently identified as playing a critical role in the success or failure of organizations and some surveys have pegged almost half of an organization’s performance on the quality and effectiveness of its leadership team.  Apart from organizational performance, researchers have consistently found a strong correlation between leadership styles and behaviors and the job satisfaction and performance of subordinates.  When formal interest in the study of leadership first began in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the so-called “great man” theory, which assumed that certain individual characteristics or traits could be found in leaders but not in non-leaders and that those characteristics could not be developed but must be inherited, was quite popular and many assumed that leaders were simply “born and not made”. As time passed, however, the consensus within the community of leadership scholars and consultants shifted significantly to the current working proposition that while some people do indeed appear to be natural leaders from birth it is nonetheless possible for many others with sufficient desire and willpower to develop into leaders by following a continuous process of work, self-study, education, training and experience.

The Sustainable Entrepreneur’s Library of Resources for Leadership consists of two Parts.  Part I covers leadership studies and provides an overview of definitions and conceptions of leadership and the history and evolution of leadership studies.  Part I also introduces the extensive research that has been conducted on the relationship between culture and leadership and includes an introduction to the often intense debate among leadership scholars as to whether attributes of leadership are perceived in the same way—positively or negatively—across all societal cultures (i.e., universally), or whether the perception of those attributes varied across the range of societal cultures (“culturally contingent”).  The Part then continues with discussion, analysis and criticism of the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness project, commonly referred to as “GLOBE”, which was an ambitious effort to identify and measure relationships between culture and preferred leadership styles and behaviors.  The Part also discusses cross-cultural competencies of global leaders—the practical applications of the information available from the studies of the GLOBE researchers and others to the day-to-day activities of leaders in business organizations around the world–and assesses the research on cross-cultural.  Part I also devotes specific attention to leadership in developing countries, an acknowledgment that the field of leadership studies has long been primarily focused on Western leadership styles and practices and that Western-based notions of effective leadership are not suitable in developing countries where the political environment and business systems are highly unstable.  Part II focuses on practicing leadership and discusses the roles and activities expected from an effective leader; personality traits and attributes which can be learned and perfected by persons that aspire to leadership positions; styles of leadership, which encompass the strategies used by leaders to engage with their followers; and sustainable leadership.


Leadership Studies: A Guide for Sustainable Entrepreneurs

Practicing Leadership: A Guide for Sustainable Entrepreneurs

Project Articles on Leadership


Training Materials

Leadership Across Cultures

Leadership Model for Developing Countries

Leadership Models

Sustainable Leadership



Culture and Leadership Across the World

Chapters or Articles in Books

Culture and Leadership

 The Vision Thing

Articles in Journals

Cross-Cultural Lessons on Leadership from GLOBE Project

Cross-Cultural Servant Leadership

Cultural Contingency Model of Leadership

Cultural Variation of Leadership Prototypes

Leadership and Culture in Sweden

Leadership Styles in the United Kingdom

Servant Leadership as a Humane Orientation

Servant Leadership in Latin America

Social Network Analysis and Leadership Networks

Sustainable Leadership Practices

Theses and Dissertations

Cross-Cultural Study of Culture and Servant Leadership


Becoming a Sustainability Leader

Conceptions of Leadership

Kelly Leadership Style Survey

Keys to Sustainability Leadership

Seven Habits of Effective Sustainable Leaders

Sustainability Leadership – Theory and Practice