For the past several centuries, companies wishing to do business internationally had to face two major problems – geographical and temporal space.  However, with the emergence of virtually instantaneous communication methods, including telephones, computers, and video conferences, and the ability to be in almost any other part of the world within 24 hours, distance and time are no longer major concerns for operating on a global playing field.  In fact, coupled with the emergence of an international marketplace for most goods and services, all businesses today, from start‑up firms to large mature companies regardless of where they are located, must be prepared to operate and compete in a rapidly changing environment in which competitive opportunities and threats arise from a number of disparate factors: regulatory, economic, social, cultural, political and technological.  As a result, globalization has become a strategic imperative for firms looking to reduce manufacturing and other operational costs, secure additional access to necessary supplies and technologies, improve customer service and relations, and gain access to new markets for their goods and services.  Companies may also look at global operations as a way to manage risks and learn about new ways to improve operations in all locations throughout the company and to attract talented managers, engineers, and scientists who can make a contribution to the entire organization.  Firms must adapt to and embrace globalization or lose their competitive advantage and this requires thoughtful consideration of the choice of foreign countries and modes of penetration; the extent of localization and globalization in international markets; the degree of coordination among worldwide operations scattered throughout multiple locations, time zones and societal cultures; and the timing and sequence of internationalization plans.


Research Papers

Cross-Cultural Studies

Globalization Global Survey (2017)

Additional Materials



Checklists and Questionnaires

Questionnaire for International Joint Ventures

Training Materials

Cross Cultural Leadership

Cultural Environment

Culture and Leadership

Evaluating Foreign Markets (BCI)

Global Business Conditions and Implications for Management

Leadership Across Cultures

Leadership and Management in a Global Environment

Project GLOBE – Deciphering Cultures

Value Dimensions of Culture and National Differences


Chapters or Articles in Books

Beyond Hofstede – Challenging the 10 Commandments of Cross-Cultural Research

Cross-Cultural Research on Organizational Leadership

Cultural Frameworks and Their Importance for Leaders

Culture and Leadership

Enriched Uppsala Model

Global Expansion – A Strategic Necessity for SMEs

Managing the Challenges of Globalization – Swiss SMEs

The Cultural Theory Jungle

Articles in Journals

Arabic Cluster – A Bridge Between East and West

Clustering Countries on Attitudinal Dimensions

Cross-Cultural and Comparative Management Research

Cross-Cultural Lessons in Leadership from Project GLOBE

Cultural Clusters – Methodology and Findings

Cultural Dimensions and Social Behavior Correlates

Cultural Diversity Implications for Workplace Management

Hofstede Model – Applications to Global Branding

Hofstede’s Country Classification 25 Years Later

Integrating the Strategy Formation Process

Leadership in the Asian Century – Lessons from GLOBE

Overcoming Pitfalls in CCM Research

The Many Dimensions of Culture

The Transfer of Western Management Skills to China

Theses and Dissertations

International Distribution Channels

Mechanical Engineering Design Across Cultures

The Internationalization of Indian Firms

The Internationalization of Vietnamese SMEs


Cross Cultural Organizational Culture Research

Cross-Cultural Differences in Entrepreneurial Activity

Cross-Cultural Organizational Behavior Research

Cross-National Transfer of HRM Practices in Subsidiaries of Multinational Corporations

Cultural Variation of Leadership Prototypes Across Europe

Entrepreneurship and Firm Formation Across Countries

Export Intensity of Venture Capital-Backed Companies

Fundamental Issues in International Entrepreneurship

Globalization of Firms

International Entrepreneurship

Navigating the Culture Theory Jungle

Online Articles

Guidelines for Successful Globalization by Hi-Tech Startups

Hofstede’s Five Dimensions


West Legal Ed Center